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New York – 1800s and Beyond

Establishing Education and Supporting the Abolition of Slavery

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In the 1800s, the state of New York was a major supporter for causes which would help to ensure the entire nation’s progression, including women’s rights and the abolition of slavery. Its towns began to establish educational systems which, after a legislation signed by Governor William H Seward, included public education for all children regardless of race or gender. There were also many supporters of abolition that participated in the Underground Railroad, helping slaves attain freedom in Canada or within the state itself.

By the early 1840s, rights for free blacks had been expanded by Seward, and laws were passed protecting African-Americans against southern slave catchers. After 1863, when Lincoln issued the Emancipation proclamation, many freed slaves migrated to New York and began to compete for jobs. In July 1863, five days of large scale riots which targeted freed slaves, African-Americans and other supporters of abolition, caused many to move from Manhattan to Brooklyn and other areas of the state.

Financial, Agricultural and Manufacturing Industries

The end of The Civil War marked the beginning of New York’s dominance in the financial and banking industries, as well as a rise in manufacturing. The invention of hydroelectric power meant that the area surrounding Buffalo and Niagara Falls became an established factory site. Workers formed unions as early as the 1820s, and these had used their influence to regulate work hours by 1867. Agricultural output also began to peak in the state, and farmers changed their focus from crop based to dairy based produce. The cheese industry was established in the Mohawk Valley, and New York Harbor became the world’s oyster capital.

By 1900, as a result of being serviced by over a dozen major railroads, New York had become the richest and most densely populated state in America. A high amount of immigration continued and by 1925 its population had outnumbered that of London. With this growing number of people, the skyline of its major cities began to rise and New York became associated with skyscrapers. In 1913, The Woolworth Building became the tallest in the world, until it was surpassed by 40 Wall Street and The Chrysler Building in 1930, The Empire State Building in 1931, and the World Trade Center in 1972.

The Move from Industry to Technology

The ‘roaring twenties’ resulted in a further boom in the New York economy. However, the negative effects were equally devastating during The Great Depression, which began with the Wall Street crash in 1929. To re-establish the stock market, The Securities and Stock Exchange Commission opened in 1934.

WWII caused the state in excess of 31000 casualties and, as the nation’s largest, it was responsible for supplying the most resources. After the war ended, New York’s economy shifted towards providing services instead of goods. The middle class expanded and many jobs in technology became available, attracting young professionals to the state. Large companies have since established their headquarters in New York, and New York City has become one of the centres for the nation’s chic and refined culture.

New York – History of an Influential State

As one of the original 13 colonies of the United States, New York has played an important part in the country’s development. The area was first colonised by the Dutch at the beginning of the 1600s, with the British taking control by 1664 and renaming the colony, New York.

The American Revolution

The American Revolution was the result of the rebellion by the original colonies, for their independence. New York became the scene of the largest battle of the war, The Battle of Long Island, which was fought in 1776. It resulted in the British defeating the Continental Army and regaining control of New York City. The turning point of the war once again took place in New York, The Battle of Saratoga, when the rebels regained control in 1777. After this The New York Constitution was drafted, which influenced the Constitution of the United States.

The Nation’s Capital

New York became the country’s capital intermittently between 1785 and 1790. On July 26, 1788 it became the 11th state to join the Union, and George Washington, the nation’s first president was inaugurated in front of Federal Hall a year later. This prompted the first sitting of the United States Supreme Court, in New York. By 1797, Albany had become the state’s permanent capital, and continues to remain so.

A Centre for Transportation and Immigration   

By the beginning of the 1800s, New York had become a centre for advancements in transportation. The first successful steamboat line, which ran from New York City to Albany, was established by Robert Fulton in 1807. By 1815, Albany had become the state’s turnpike centre and a major route for migration to the west. In addition, The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad located in New York, was the beginning of the country’s regularly scheduled steam railroad.

The Eerie Canal, which linked The Atlantic Ocean with The Great Lakes, provided the opportunity for economic and political advancement for the state. It also became a market for agricultural goods which were exported from the interior.

New York’s growth rate was one of the highest in the US, and by 1840 seven of the country’s 30 largest cities were located in the state. It became a prominent point of entry for those migrating to the country, including many Irish families, who were affected by their country’s potato famine in the 1840s. Other immigrants included Germans, Italians, Jews and Poles. It is estimated that between 1855 and 1890, approximately 8 million immigrants passed through Castle Clinton at Battery Park in Manhattan. The statue of liberty became known as the ‘Mother of Exiles,’ and became a symbol of hope to many of those entering the country.

Tiffany & Co. – New York’s Finest

On September 14,1837 Charles Lewis Tiffany opened a small store at 259 Broadway in New York. It was advertised as a ‘stationery and fancy goods emporium,’ but by 1853 the company began to specialise in diamond jewellery. The Tiffany & Co. flagship store is currently located at the corner of 5th Avenue and 57th Street in New York. This location opened its doors to the public on October 21, 1940, and is constructed of limestone and granite with Art Deco influences and stainless steel doors. The front of the store features a nine foot bronze statue of the Greek titan, Atlas, holding a clock on his shoulders.

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Shortly after its inception, Tiffany began to attract shoppers who were willing to pay high prices for unique and luxurious items. The company’s growth has continued and some of the events which have contributed to this include:

1877 – A large yellow diamond was unearthed from the Kimberley Mines in South Africa and purchased by Charles Tiffany a year later. Originally 287 carats, it was cut to 128.54 carats to release its brilliance and named ‘The Tiffany Diamond.’ After being displayed in several other pieces over the years, the diamond is currently mounted in a necklace made to celebrate the store’s 175th anniversary. It is displayed on the main floor of the Tiffany & Co. flagship store in New York.

1886 – Charles Tiffany invented the tiffany setting for diamonds which is still the most popular engagement ring setting. The company is also responsible for releasing the Lucida cut in 1999, after decades of development.

1887 – The world was shocked when Charles Tiffany purchased the French Crown Jewels. The press crowned him ‘King of Diamonds,’ and this helped to solidify the reputation the company has for selling high quality diamonds. After the death of Charles Tiffany, his son Louis Comfort Tiffany, became the company’s first design director in 1902. 

1919 – Tiffany & Co. becomes of service to the United States military when they redesign The Medal of Honor. The company is also responsible for making the NFL Vince Lombardi trophy each year, since the first Super Bowl in 1967.

2000 – The Tiffany & Co. Foundation was established with the mission of environmental preservation and social responsibility. It provides grants for nonprofit organisations working in entertainment and the arts.

The company’s standards that were put on sterling silver and platinum have also been adopted as the US standards for jewellery construction. In addition, one of their gemologists, George Frederick Kunz, was instrumental in the use of the metric carat as the standard weight for gems. As well as jewellery, Tiffany & Co. still continues to sell china, crystal, stationery, perfumes and other luxury items.

Tangled Web Is Now Available

OUT TODAY

Cassandra Grayson leads a quiet life managing a library in Queens, NY. There’s only one thing missing… her sister.

Cassandra hasn’t seen her sister since the night their wealthy, prominent father died from a massive heart attack. She had only been five years old at the time and can barely recall the events of that night. All she can remember was that men came to the house and that it was the last time she saw her sister. Her alcoholic, emotionally unstable mother refuses to discuss her and will only say that she had been sent away to an exclusive boarding school in Europe. But, as the years pass by with no word from her, Cassandra begins to suspect there is more to her father’s death and her sister’s disappearance than she first thought.

Desperate to find answers she hires a private investigator, but when he turns up dead it becomes clear someone doesn’t want her looking into her family’s past. When wealthy businessman Jackson Evans stumbles into her life, with problems of his own, they realize his family and hers are inexplicably entwined in a web of deceit and murder, which spans two decades.

One by one, everyone who was in her home the night of her father’s death, begins to die under suspicious circumstances and it becomes a race against time to uncover the truth, before she becomes the next victim.

Available now from:

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Tangled Web – Pre-order Today

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tangled3Cassandra Grayson leads a quiet life managing a library in Queens, NY. There’s only one thing missing… her sister.

Cassandra hasn’t seen her sister since the night their wealthy, prominent father died from a massive heart attack. She had only been five years old at the time and can barely recall the events of that night. All she can remember was that men came to the house and that it was the last time she saw her sister. Her alcoholic, emotionally unstable mother refuses to discuss her and will only say that she had been sent away to an exclusive boarding school in Europe. But, as the years pass by with no word from her, Cassandra begins to suspect there is more to her father’s death and her sister’s disappearance than she first thought.

Desperate to find answers she hires a private investigator, but when he turns up dead it becomes clear someone doesn’t want her looking into her family’s past. When wealthy businessman Jackson Evans stumbles into her life, with problems of his own, they realize his family and hers are inexplicably entwined in a web of deceit and murder, which spans two decades.

One by one, everyone who was in her home the night of her Father’s death, begin to die under suspicious circumstances and it becomes a race against time to uncover the truth, before she becomes the next victim.

RELEASED 5 JUNE
Available to pre-order from:

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5 Iconic Buildings in New York

One of the busiest cities in the United States and the most popular tourist destinations in the world, New York City is known for its amazing skyscrapers and unique architecture. Many people visit the city to experience not only the thrill of living here, but also the iconic buildings that grace the skyline. These include:

  1. The Empire State Building

Standing at 102 storeys, The Empire Sate Building bears an Art Deco design. The construction of this skyscraper was completed in 1931 and it became the world’s tallest building, until The World Trade Centre was erected in the 1970s. Often referred to as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World, the building became a National Historic Landmark in 1986.

  1. The Chrysler Building

Even though The Chrysler Building only held the record for the world’s tallest building for a year, before The Empire State Building was erected, it still remains one of New York’s finest. Envisioned by William Van Alen, the building is known for its stunning Art Deco design, elegant, terraced crown with a sunburst pattern, and its grand eagles that act as sentries from their 61st floor perch.

  1. The Statue of Liberty

Lighting the way to freedom, Lady Liberty was designed by the French sculpture Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and built by fellow countryman, Gustave Eiffel. The 151 foot statue is located on Liberty Island, and keeps watch over the harbour welcoming visitors to the city. Dedicated to the United States on October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty is constructed of copper and developed its blue-green patina 20 years after it was erected, due to the effects of the elements on the metal. 

  1. The New York Public Library

The main branch of The New York City Public Library took over a decade to design and build. A city-wide competition was declared to determine its architect, and Carrere and Hastings were the winners. The Beaux Arts Building became the largest marble structure in America, when it opened in 1911. Its exterior walls feature 20,000 blocks of Vermont marble and the main entrance is flanked by two Tennessee marble lions, known as Patience and Fortitude. Enclosed inside is The Rose Reading Room, which is New York’s finest public square bearing 51 foot ceilings that feature intricate, sculpted mouldings and painted clouds.

  1. St. Patrick’s Cathedral

This intricately decorated house of worship, represents the glamour of the city in which it is located. Built in a neo-Gothic style,and facing the Rockefeller Centre, it is the seat of the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. Its ornately decorative elements, such as stained glass windows and marble cladding, ensure that it stands out amidst the city’s skyscrapers. In 2012, a massive renovation project restored some of the church’s original elements; including its heavy bronze doors, large main organ and ceiling.